[423], In the 2001 census 71.6 per cent of all respondents indicated that they were Christians, with the next largest faiths being Islam (2.8 per cent), Hinduism (1.0 per cent), Sikhism (0.6 per cent), Judaism (0.5 per cent), Buddhism (0.3 per cent) and all other religions (0.3 per cent). United Kingdom transportation options are still limited but continuing to operate. The United Kingdom = Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: in 2015 around 2.4 million engines were produced. [628] Britannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. [558][559][560][561], A number of UK cities are known for their music. At its widest the United Kingdom is 300 miles (500 km) across. The republic of Ireland gained its independence in 1922, but six of Ulster’s nine counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. [163] The fault separates two distinctively different regions; namely the Highlands to the north and west and the Lowlands to the south and east. The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. [532], According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" originated in Britain in the mid-1950s to describe rock and roll's fusion with the "new youth music". General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. [100] Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was later described as Pax Britannica ("British Peace"), a period of relative peace among the Great Powers (1815–1914) during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman. [322] Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets (tracks, signals etc.). See. [574], British cuisine developed from various influences reflective of its land, settlements, arrivals of new settlers and immigrants, trade and colonialism. "[123] After Nazi Germany invaded Poland, Britain entered the Second World War by declaring war on Germany in 1939. [126][127] The war left the UK severely weakened and financially dependent on the Marshall Plan,[128] but it was spared the total war that devastated eastern Europe. Ecommerce in The United Kingdom. During the Second World War, the UK was one of the Big Four powers (along with the U.S., the Soviet Union, and China) who met to plan the post-war world;[124][125] it was an original signatory to the Declaration by United Nations. [428] Among Christians, adherents to the Church of England constituted 15 per cent, Roman Catholic Church 9 per cent, and other Christians (including Presbyterians, Methodists, other Protestants, as well as Eastern Orthodox), 17 per cent. George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiah, were written in the English language. [129] In the immediate post-war years, the Labour government initiated a radical programme of reforms, which had a significant effect on British society in the following decades. [170] The prevailing wind is from the southwest and bears frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean,[154] although the eastern parts are mostly sheltered from this wind since the majority of the rain falls over the western regions the eastern parts are therefore the driest. The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. [506][507], "British literature" refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. [180] Below the regional tier, some parts of England have county councils and district councils and others have unitary authorities, while London consists of 32 London boroughs and the City of London. All but one of the reactors will be retired by 2023. Das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland (englisch United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ), kurz Vereinigtes Königreich (englisch United Kingdom [juːˌnaɪ̯.tʰɪd ˈkʰɪŋ.dəm], internationale Abkürzung: UK oder GB), ist ein auf den Britischen Inseln vor der Nordwestküste Kontinentaleuropas gelegener europäischer Staat und bildet den größten Inselstaat Europas. [570] Many British actors have achieved international fame and critical success. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Vereinigtes Königreich {n} Großbritannien und Nordirland: bibl. [517][518], There have been a number of authors whose origins were from outside the United Kingdom but who moved to the UK and became British. [48][49] With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences". [436] England has had small Jewish communities for many centuries, subject to occasional expulsions, but British Jews numbered fewer than 10,000 at the start of the 19th century. [513], Britain's oldest known poem, Y Gododdin, was composed in Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North), most likely in the late 6th century. Terminology for the British Isles, the United Kingdom, Great Britain, and Ireland. [425] A Tearfund survey in 2007 showed only one in 10 Britons actually attend church weekly. Dust from North Africa mingled with other aerosols in the skies over the United Kingdom (left of center) and Ireland (farther west) on 18 April 2003. As a result of the British Empire, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies including Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States; a common culture coined today as the Anglosphere. This list includes all countries in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [331][332], In 2013, the UK produced 914 thousand barrels per day (bbl/d) of oil and consumed 1,507 thousand bbl/d. The United Kingdom comprises four geographic and historical parts—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. Thus, on January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom would become the first country to withdraw from the EU. [367] A 2006 genetic study shows that more than 50 per cent of England's gene pool contains Germanic Y chromosomes. Made up of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom may not always seem very united - indeed, Scotland came close to voting for independence in 2014. "[193] Self-determination is also enshrined in the constitutions of several overseas territories and three have specifically voted to remain under British sovereignty (Bermuda in 1995,[194] Gibraltar in 2002[195] and the Falkland Islands in 2013). The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency (after the US dollar and the euro). [622] Snooker is another of the UK's popular sporting exports, with the world championships held annually in Sheffield. Great Britain Abitur UK history multiculturalism. Considering the four systems together, about 38 per cent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degree, which is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world. Great Britain is traditionally divided into a highland and a lowland zone. Yet this historic state is packed with appeal for the visitor, from pulsing cities to stunning countryside. [254] Since 1997 the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year. [154] The M25, encircling London, is the largest and busiest bypass in the world. Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. [620] Great Britain is still retained as the full national team. In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. [67] By the end of the region's prehistoric period, the population is thought to have belonged, in the main, to a culture termed Insular Celtic, comprising Brittonic Britain and Gaelic Ireland. [151] The broadcast to the nation on 5 April by Queen Elizabeth was just the fifth time she had done so in response to an important national event or crisis. In the 1991 UK census 94.1 per cent of people reported themselves as being White British, White Irish or White Other with 5.9 per cent of people reporting themselves as coming from other minority groups. The United Kingdom was formed by Acts of Union between England and Wales (1536) and England, Wales, and Scotland (1707), uniting the three nations under a single monarchy and legislative council (Parliament in London). [259][260] The creative industries accounted for 7 per cent GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6 per cent per annum between 1997 and 2005. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments,[22] each with varying powers. It consists of 11 teams from Northern England, and one each from London, Wales and France. It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. All pupils in Wales are either taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh as a first language. On 1 May 1707, the Kingdom of Great Britain was formed, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the 1706 Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms. [572], Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence. [184] In 2008 the executive agreed on proposals to create 11 new councils and replace the present system. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games. England, Scotland and Wales together form Great Britain. George Orwell. The British directors Alfred Hitchcock, whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time,[569] and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all time. United Kingdom Independence Party {f} hist. It consists of the entire island of Great Britain and a northern part of the island of Ireland. Sun: ↑ 07:56AM ↓ 03:52PM (7h 55m) More info [295][296][297][298][299], England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. On a global scale, this natural endowment covers a small area—approximating that of the U.S. state of Oregon or the African country of Guinea—and its internal diversity, accompanied by rapid changes of often beautiful scenery, may convey to visitors from larger countries a striking sense of compactness and consolidation. The United Kingdom (UK) is a unitary sovereign state made up of four countries within its territory. These 16 countries are sometimes referred to as "Commonwealth realms". For other uses, see, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Location of the United Kingdom (dark green), From the union with Ireland to the end of the First World War, Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom. By 1961 this number had more than quadrupled to 384,000, just over 0.7 per cent of the United Kingdom population. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [357] While a rising birth rate is contributing to population growth, it remains considerably below the baby boom peak of 2.95 children per woman in 1964,[358] or the high of 6.02 children born per woman in 1815,[359] below the replacement rate of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low of 1.63. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [267], The automotive industry employs around 800,000 people, with a turnover in 2015 of £70 billion, generating £34.6 billion of exports (11.8 per cent of the UK's total export goods). The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship. Over 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2 per cent of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72 per cent of those living in the Outer Hebrides. United Kingdom time now. [citation needed], Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Following the end of the Cold War, defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition. Nonetheless, even with the establishment of a power-sharing assembly after referenda in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland’s unionists (who favour continued British sovereignty over Northern Ireland) and nationalists (who favour unification with the republic of Ireland) remained tense into the 21st century. [101][102][103][104] By the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Britain was described as the "workshop of the world". [252], The UK has a partially regulated market economy. [105] From 1853 to 1856, Britain took part in the Crimean War, allied with the Ottoman Empire in the fight against the Russian Empire,[106] participating in the naval battles of the Baltic Sea known as the Åland War in the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, among others. Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are 1,223;[182] they are paid a part-time salary. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "in the United Kingdom" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. [514] From around the 7th century, the connection between Wales and the Old North was lost, and the focus of Welsh-language culture shifted to Wales, where Arthurian legend was further developed by Geoffrey of Monmouth. Editorials. [175] [320] In 2009 there were a total of 34 million licensed vehicles in Great Britain. [575][577], The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. [461], From 2008, the British Government introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative. It is actually a union of four countries including England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. [536] The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that artists such as The Beatles and The Rolling Stones drove pop music to the forefront of popular music in the early 1960s. [523][524] Historically, a number of Irish writers, living at a time when all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, also spent much of their working lives in England. In 2015, the UK produced around 1.6 million passenger vehicles and 94,500 commercial vehicles. The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: a legacy of the British Empire. [459] The ONS reported that net migration rose from 2009 to 2010 by 21 per cent to 239,000. In 2010, over half of places at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge were taken by students from state schools,[489] while the proportion of children in England attending private schools is around 7 per cent, which rises to 18 per cent of those over 16. [342], The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for 14.9 per cent of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2013,[343] reaching 53.7 TWh of electricity generated. No Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.[203]. hist. "[293] His final 2019 report found that the UK government was doubling down on policies that have "led to the systematic immiseration of millions across Great Britain" and that sustained and widespread cuts to social support "amount to retrogressive measures in clear violation of the United Kingdom’s human rights obligations. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". [citation needed], The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. [412] Among emigrant-descended populations some Scottish Gaelic is still spoken in Canada (principally Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island),[413] and Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina. Beside the lion and the unicorn and the dragon of heraldry, the bulldog is an iconic animal and commonly represented with the Union Jack. Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. The United Kingdom is a sovereign state in Europe.Its boundaries include the island of Great Britain, the northeastern portion of the island of Ireland, and several other smaller islands. This brought the local islanders into contact with the rest of Europe. The United Kingdom's capital is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Interpol and the World Trade Organization (WTO). The total value of imports and exports represents nearly half the country’s GDP. Total defence spending amounts to 2.0 per cent of national GDP. [339] Environmental and social concerns have been raised over chemicals getting into the water table and minor earthquakes damaging homes. [629] A now rare personification is the character John Bull. [587] The UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people. [353] The 2011 census also confirmed that the proportion of the population aged 0–14 has nearly halved (31 per cent in 1911 compared to 18 in 2011) and the proportion of older people aged 65 and over has more than tripled (from 5 per cent to 16 per cent). HM Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. Its capital and largest city is London, but other large cities are Glasgow, Birmingham, Liverpool, and Edinburgh. [373][374] The UK also has the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating to the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century. [455] The proportion of foreign-born people in the UK remains slightly below that of many other European countries. [240], The UK is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G7 finance ministers, the G7 forum, the G20, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe and the OSCE. English Exercises > world exercises. Most of the United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with generally cool temperatures and plentiful rainfall all year round. Conditions continue to improve in the United Kingdom. [263][264] British merchants, shippers and bankers developed overwhelming advantage over those of other nations allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. In the decades-long process of European integration, the UK was a founding member of the alliance called the Western European Union, established with the London and Paris Conferences in 1954. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals. In 2011, the UK produced 18.3 million tonnes of coal. [199] Since 2005 each Crown dependency has had a Chief Minister as its head of government. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and the South Wales Valleys to their north. [247] The armed forces of the United Kingdom are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The name Britain is sometimes used to refer to the United Kingdom as a whole. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in Scotland is the sport's home course,[616] the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Links' Old Golf Course. [335] In 2010[update] the UK had around 3.1 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves, the largest of any EU member state. [445], In 2014 the net increase was 318,000: immigration was 641,000, up from 526,000 in 2013, while the number of people emigrating (for more than 12 months) was 323,000. [166] Wales is mostly mountainous, though South Wales is less mountainous than North and mid Wales. [621], The 'Queensberry rules', the code of general rules in boxing, was named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in 1867, and formed the basis of modern boxing. UK countries and capitals are listed alphabetically and the list of British capitals and countries of the United Kingdom can be sorted by column. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government. The UK space industry was worth £9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people. [citation needed], Notable pre-modern and early-modern English writers include Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), John Bunyan (17th century) and John Milton (17th century). By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. [522] Others have chosen to live and work in the UK without taking up British citizenship, such as Ezra Pound. [citation needed], In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. Northern Ireland contains a westward extension of the rock structures of Scotland. [496], The Welsh Government's Minister for Education has responsibility for education in Wales. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. Science. The United Kingdom is made up of: England - The capital is London. In 2003, rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses. The English top division, the Premier League, is the most watched football league in the world. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, was UNESCO's first worldwide City of Literature. In sporting contexts, the English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish / Northern Irish teams are often referred to collectively as the Home Nations. [citation needed], A 2003 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. The course of the 700-foot (213-metre) contour, or of the boundary separating the older rocks of the north and west from the younger southeastern strata, provides a more accurate indication of the extent of the highlands. Routledge, Forrest L. Richardson (2002). Internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". Find what to do today or anytime in December. The Climate Change Knowledge Portal is a hub of information, data and reports about climate change around the world. [446] One of the more recent trends in migration has been the arrival of workers from the new EU member states in Eastern Europe, known as the A8 countries. Schnell verlieben sich beide ineinander, beginnen eine Beziehung und beschließen zu heiraten. [21] Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [468] In June 2010 a temporary limit of 24,000 on immigration from outside the EU was introduced, aiming to discourage applications before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011. [551][552][553][554][555][556] The Brit Awards are the BPI's annual music awards, and some of the British recipients of the Outstanding Contribution to Music award include; The Who, David Bowie, Eric Clapton, Rod Stewart, The Police, and Fleetwood Mac (who are a British-American band). [317], A radial road network totals 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads, 2,173 miles (3,497 km) of motorways and 213,750 miles (344,000 km) of paved roads. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count. [37][38][note 13] The term "United Kingdom" has occasionally been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was simply "Great Britain". In the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson were pioneers of the modern novel,[citation needed] and the poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge published their Lyrical Ballads in 1798. [625] Highland games are held in spring and summer in Scotland, celebrating Scottish and celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.[626]. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe. It is not to be confused with, "Britain", "UK", and "United Kingdom" redirect here. The 2011 Census recorded Gypsies/Travellers as a separate ethnic group for the first time. The World Health Organization, in 2000, ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world. The United Kingdom of today dates to the formation of the Medieval Kingdom of England, and later, the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy in the 17th century. [500][501] Since 1979 expenditure on healthcare has been increased significantly to bring it closer to the European Union average. Around 120,000 settled permanently in Britain, becoming the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles;[437][438] this population had increased to 370,000 by 1938. The capital is London, which is among the world’s leading commercial, financial, and cultural centres. [434], The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. The troubles were over, but other large cities are known the united kingdom their music of England is the most sport! 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