Jews have lived on the shores of the Black and Caspian seas since the first centuries of the common era. Some useful supplements to Carmoly's works were presented by Paulus Cassel in 1848 and 1877 ("Magyarische Alterthümer," pp. [106] Their presence may have prompted the formation of a Rus' state by convincing the Slavs, Merja and the Chud' to unite to protect common interests against Khazarian exactions of tribute. In the same way D'Ohsson, although he found the information of the Arabic and Byzantine writers in conformity with the contents of the Chazar letters, could not help doubting its genuineness ("Peuples du Caucase," p. 205). [note 29] During the period leading up to and after the siege of Constantinople in 626, Heraclius sought help via emissaries, and eventually personally, from a Göktürk chieftain[note 30] of the Western Turkic Khaganate, Tong Yabghu Qağan, in Tiflis, plying him with gifts and the promise of marriage to his daughter, Epiphania. The New Jewish Encyclopedia (1962) by David Bridger and Samuel Wolk reinforces what the old Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) said about the history of the Khazarian people. [86] Tong Yabghu responded by sending a large force to ravage the Persian empire, marking the start of the Third Perso-Turkic War. The alliance was dropped around 900. The Khazars seem to have emerged during the 6th cent., from the vast nomadic Hun [Turki] empire which stretched from the steppes of Eastern Europe and the Volga basin to the Chinese frontier. The Jews of that time took little interest, however, in the history of the past, being absorbed by the cheerless events of their own epoch. 8), the king and the Chazars proper were Jews; but the army consisted of Mohammedans, while the other inhabitants, especially the Slavonians and Russians, were heathens. According to Yehoshafat Harkabi (1968) and others,[note 113] it played a role in Arab anti-Zionist polemics, and took on an anti-semitic edge. It is often argued that a Rus' Khaganate modelled on the Khazarian state had formed to the east, and that the Varangian chieftain of the coalition appropriated the title of qağan (khagan) as early as the 830s: the title survived to denote the princes of Kievan Rus', whose capital, Kyiv, is often associated with a Khazarian foundation. 8-11). This struggle, which finally resulted in the loss by Armenia of her independence, paved the way for the political importance of the Chazars. Calmet, however, considers the whole story a fiction (Calmet, "Biblische Untersuchungen, Uebersetzt von Mosheim," iv. The Khazars launched raids in response into Albania and Iranian Azerbaijan but were driven back by the Arabs under Hasan ibn al-Nu'man. This is not to say that the Khazars were Karaites, a view which has not lacked defenders, at least since the time of A. According to Nadia Abu El-Haj, the issues of origins are generally complicated by the difficulties of writing history via genome studies and the biases of emotional investments in different narratives, depending on whether the emphasis lies on direct descent or on conversion within Jewish history. Together they then besieged Tiflis, where the Byzantines may have deployed an early variety of traction trebuchets (ἑλέπόλεις) to breach the walls. A few scholars, Moshe Gil, recently seconded by Shaul Stampfer,[note 65] dismiss the conversion as a myth. In 679 the Chazars subjugated the Bulgars and extended their sway farther west between the Don and the Dnieper, as faras the head-waters of the Donetz in the province of Lebedia… [note 5], D. M. Dunlop tried to link the Chinese term for "Khazars" to one of the tribal names of the Uyğur, or Toquz Oğuz, namely the Qasar (Ch. Here he was circumcised. Warned by Theodora, Justinian escaped, murdering two Khazar officials in the process. [48] After their conquest of the lower Volga region to the East and an area westwards between the Danube and the Dniepr, and their subjugation of the Onoğur-Bulğar union, sometime around 670, a properly constituted Khazar Qağanate emerges,[55] becoming the westernmost successor state of the formidable Göktürk Qağanate after its disintegration. The alliance was dropped around 900. 158), he undertook to connect an arm of the Nile with the Red Sea by means of a canal; he was really... NECROMANCY – Divination by aid of the dead is said to have been common among the Persians (Strabo, xvi. For even in Gog and Magog, the Hunnic people who call themselves Gazari, those whom Alexander confined, there was a tribe more brave than the others. He escaped into Khazar territory in 704 or 705 and was given asylum by qağan Busir Glavan (Ἰβουζήρος Γλιαβάνος), who gave him his sister in marriage, perhaps in response to an offer by Justinian, who may have thought a dynastic marriage would seal by kinship a powerful tribal support for his attempts to regain the throne. When the chaghan wanted to punish any one, he said, "Go and commit suicide"—a method resembling the Japanese custom of hara-kiri. In 737, Marwan Ibn Muhammad entered Khazar territory under the guise of seeking a truce. “During that early period Jews seemed to have enjoyed a privileged status, … (, "Salo Baron, who incorrectly viewed them as Finno-Ugrians, believed that the Khazars 'sent many offshoots into the unsubdued Slavonic lands, helping ultimately to build up the great Jewish centers of eastern Europe'" (, "Some limit this denial to European Jews and make use of the theory that the Jews of Europe are not of Israelite descent at all but are the offspring of a tribe of Central Asian Turks converted to Judaism, called the Khazars. Samuel Bochart, in his derivation of the name of the Chazars, introduces the account of Joseph ben Gorion (Yosippon), and in his notes to the "Yuḥasin" of Zacuto gives information about the Chazarian kingdom and the Sea of the Chazars obtained from the "Geographia Nubiensis" of the Arabian writer Idrisi (12th century: see "Geographia Sacra," 1646, p. 226). The report of the embassy reads as follows: 'Quomodo nune Judæi, nune Saraceni ad suam fidem eos molirentur convertere'" (Schlözer, "Nestor," iii. A Khazar Jew could be either an ethnic Khazar (of Turkish or Mongol blood) who became a proselyte to Judaism or an ethnic Jew who lived in Khazaria. He invited Jewish scholars to settle in his dominions, and founded synagogues and schools. Elements within the Hungarian population can be viewed as perpetuating Khazar traditions as a successor state. He held in his right hand a chip of wood, which he lit when he saluted the chaghan, whereupon he took his seat to the right of the latter, on the throne, which was of gold. Chazarian troops were among the body-guard of the Byzantine imperial court; and they fought for Leo VI. It was probably about that time that the chaghan of the Chazars and his grandees, together with a large number of his heathen people, embraced the Jewish religion. notably the narrative of Ibn Faḍlān), they seem to have had little or no contact with the central Jewish organization in Iraq, and they tend to be mentioned less by Rabbanite than by Karaite authors. On beholding this my eyes would brighten, my reins would exult, my lips would pour forth praises to God, who has not withdrawn his favour from his afflicted ones." Jesus was a 'Judean', not a Jew. The Arabs devastated the horse herds, seized many Khazars and others as captives, and forced much of the population to flee into the Ural Mountains. [233] In 2018, Kevin Alan Brook cited genetic data to argue against the claim that Ashkenazim have any amount of Khazarian ancestry. It has been estimated that from 25 to 28 distinct ethnic groups made up the population of the Khazar Qağanate, aside from the ethnic elite. Byzantium, threatened by Varangian Rus' raiders, would assist Khazaria, and Khazaria at times allowed the northerners to pass through their territory in exchange for a portion of the booty. The Danish historiographer Frederick Suhm, who in 1779 wrote a remarkable work, for that time, on the Chazars, and who could not free himself from the view of the Hebraists of the time with regard to the letter of King Joseph, was the first to give a decided opinion in favor of the genuineness of the letter of Ḥasdai (Suhm,"Samlede Skrifter"). The native religion of the Khazars is thought to have been Tengrism, like that of the North Caucasian Huns and other Turkic peoples. A variegated tribal federation led by these Turks, probably comprising a complex assortment of Iranian,[note 15] proto-Mongolic, Uralic, and Palaeo-Siberian clans, vanquished the Rouran Khaganate of the hegemonic central Asian Avars in 552 and swept westwards, taking in their train other steppe nomads and peoples from Sogdiana.[46]. The truth of such a conversion and its extent has been the topic of many discussions, and the topic of vehement disagreements in our age of genomic DNA analyses." [130], By the end of the 12th century, Petachiah of Ratisbon reported travelling through what he called "Khazaria", and had little to remark on other than describing its minim (sectaries) living amidst desolation in perpetual mourning. ), in the "Russische Revue" and in "Meassef Niddaḥim," i., No. However, rather than having been made by Jews, these appear to be shamanistic sun discs." [63] In terms of caste or class, some evidence suggests that there was a distinction, whether racial or social is unclear, between "White Khazars" (ak-Khazars) and "Black Khazars" (qara-Khazars). (, "But, one must ask, are we to expect much religious paraphernalia in a recently converted steppe society? Sun amulets were widespread as cultic ornaments. 48, 53; "Journal Asiatique," 1865). 13-18, 584-590). King Joseph in his letter to Ḥasdai gives the following account of his kingdom: "The country up the river is within a four months' journey to the Orient, settled by the following nations who pay tribute to the Chazars: Burtas, Bulgar, Suvar, Arissu, Tzarmis, Ventit, Syever, and Slaviyun. The Āshǐnà were closely associated with the Tengri cult, whose practices involved rites performed to assure a tribe of heaven's protective providence. [note 34] Northern mercantile fleets passing Atil were tithed, as they were at Byzantine Cherson. The Khazars despise and persecute Christians. See, also, Armenia, Caucasus, and Crimea. According to them the czar of the Chazars adopted the Jewish religion in the eighth century. The ignorance of these writers is accounted for by the fact that only at the end of the eighteenth century were translations of the old Arabic writers, Mas'udi, Istakhri, Ibn Ḥauḳal, etc., on the Chazars, issued. This is not to say that the Khazars were Karaites, a view which has not lacked defenders, at least since the time of A. [171][172][173] Another view holds that by the 10th century, while the royal clan officially claimed Judaism, a non-normative variety of Islamisation took place among the majority of Khazars. Other officials in the Khazar government included dignitaries referred to by ibn Fadlan as Jawyshyghr and Kündür, but their responsibilities are unknown. Many scholars situate this c. 740, a date supported by Halevi's own account. The intent of the work, although based on Ḥasdai ibn Shaprūṭ's correspondence with the Khazar king, was not historical, but rather to defend Judaism as a revealed religion, written in the context, firstly of Karaite challenges to the Spanish rabbinical intelligentsia, and then against temptations to adapt Aristotelianism and Islamic philosophy to the Jewish faith. Later Russian chronicles, commenting on the role of the Khazars in the magyarisation of Hungary, refer to them as "White Oghurs" and Magyars as "Black Oghurs". For them the Khazar issue seemed to be a crucial one. The name suggests Christian affiliations. In the same way the Chazars bar enemies from the gates of Bab al-Abwab.". The last of the chaghans, George Tzula, was taken prisoner; some of the Chazars took refuge in an island of the Caspian, Siahcouye; others retired to the Caucasus; while many were sent as prisoners of war to Kiev, where a Chazar community had long existed. It is the wrong kind of evidence and the wrong style of reasoning for the task at hand. [note 120], The Kuzari is an influential work written by the medieval Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet Rabbi Yehuda Halevi (c. 1075–1141). The theory has been occasionally manipulated to deny Jewish nationhood. [note 64] Other scholars have concluded that the conversion of the Khazar elite to Judaism never happened. He fled to Bulgaria, whose Khan Tervel helped him regain the throne. [note 117] The evidence from historians he used has been criticised by Shaul Stampfer[243] and the technical response to such a position from geneticists is mostly dismissive, arguing that, if traces of descent from Khazars exist in the Ashkenazi gene pool, the contribution would be quite minor,[244][245][246][247][note 118] or insignificant. They controlled and exacted tribute from 25 to 30 different nations and tribes inhabiting the vast territories between the Caucasus, the Aral Sea, the Ural Mountains, and the Ukrainian steppes. The latter are supposed to be descended from the Chazars (Klaproth, "Mémoire sur les Khazars," in "Journal Asiatique." In a time when fanaticism, ignorance, and anarchy reigned in western Europe, the kingdom of the Chazars could boast of its just and broad-minded administration; and allwho were persecuted on the score of their religion found refuge there. Something of its nature may be deduced from what we know of the rites and beliefs of contiguous tribes, such as the North Caucasian Huns. The Russian Varangians had firmly established themselves at Kiev, while the powerful dominions of the Chazars had become dangerous to the Byzantine empire, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in his instructions on government written for his son, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petehenegs, the Uzes, and the Bulgarians as the forces on which he must rely to check the influence of the Chazars. Among the various routes enumerated by the Arabic geographer Ibn Khurdadhbah (860-880) as being used by the Rahdanite Jewish merchants, there is one leading from Spain or France, via Allemania, through the land of the Slavonians, close by Atel, the capital of the Chazars, whence they crossed the Sea of the Chazars (Caspian Sea) and continued their voyage, via Balkh, Transoxania, and the land of the … These conclusions must be considered preliminary." [182] It is generally agreed they adopted Rabbinical rather than Qaraite Judaism. Although connections are made to the Khazars, the link is based merely on a common attribution of Judaism. The high esteem in which the Chazars were held among the Jews of the Orient may be seen in the application to them—in an Arabic commentary on Isaiah ascribed by some to Saadia, and by others to Benjamin Nahawandi—of Isa. Whereas Prof. Shaul Stampfer believed the story of the Khazars' conversion to Judaism was a collection of stories or legends that have no historical foundation, (and insisted that the Ashkenazi of Eastern Europe of today stem from Jews in Central Europe who emigrated eastwards), Prof. Dan Shapiro believed that the conversion of the Khazars to Judaism was part of the history of Russia at the time it established itself as a kingdom." NECHO – King of Egypt from 610 to 594 B.C. [116] The Khazar alliance with the Byzantine empire began to collapse in the early 10th century. Firkovich vehemently rejected the idea,[197] a position seconded by Firkovich, who hoped that by "proving" his people were of Turkish origin, would secure them exception from Russian anti-Jewish laws, since they bore no reasonability for Christ's crucifixion. Two books, widely read in this milieu, came to exercise a strong influence in this regard. The latter told him that the powerful Chazars were maintaining amicable relations with the Byzantine empire, with which they carried on by sea a trade in fish, skins, and other wares, the voyage from Constantinople occupying fifteen days. "At a time when Russia masked imperialist goals by pretending to be the protector of Slavic peoples and the Orthodox faith, Crimean Karism was exercising its own version of cultural imperialism. The First Arab-Khazar War began during the first phase of Muslim expansion. The Persian king Kobad (488-531) undertook the construction of a line of forts through the pass between Derbent and the Caucasus, in order to guard against the invasion of the Chazars, Turks, and other warlike tribes. [183][184] The details are both Judaic[note 84] and Türkic: a Türkic ethnogonic myth speaks of an ancestral cave in which the Āshǐnà were conceived from the mating of their human ancestor and a wolf ancestress. [72] Khazar armies were led by the Qağan Bek (pronounced as Kagan Bek) and commanded by subordinate officers known as tarkhans. [147] Khazar merchants were active in both Constantinople and Alexandria in the 12th century.[148]. 950), and even extended their influence into the Byzantine peninsula of Cherson until it was wrested back in the 10th century. [179], Benjamin Disraeli's early novel Alroy (1833) draws on Menachem ben Solomon's story. The Khazars created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate. Then they together ended up at the outer slopes of Carpathians, and settled there, where the majority of Khazars converted from Judaism to Christianity in the 10th to 13th centuries. The rest of the Chazars were Christians, Mohammedaus, and heathens; and the Jews were in a great minority (Frähn, "De Chazaris," pp. [note 46] The decline was contemporary to that suffered by the Transoxiana Sāmānid empire to the east, both events paving the way for the rise of the Great Seljuq Empire, whose founding traditions mention Khazar connections. Another theory is that modern Jews are descendants of the Khazars who once lived in the Caucasus region including parts of what is now Ukraine, Russia and Kazakstan. Thus, the genetic proximity of these European/Syrian Jewish populations, including Ashkenazi Jews, to each other and to French, Northern Italian, and Sardinian populations favors the idea of non-Semitic Mediterranean ancestry in the formation of the European/Syrian Jewish groups and is incompatible with theories that Ashkenazi Jews are for the most part the direct lineal descendants of converted Khazars or Slavs. [131] The reference seems to be to Karaites. [207][note 111] Particularly after the publication of Burton J. Hendrick's The Jews in America (1923)[236] it began to enjoy a vogue among advocates of immigration restriction in the 1920s; racial theorists[237] like Lothrop Stoddard; anti-Semitic conspiracy-theorists like the Ku Klux Klan's Hiram Wesley Evans; anti-communist polemicists like John O. Beaty[note 112] and Wilmot Robertson, whose views influenced David Duke. He decided to convert when he was convinced of Judaism's superiority. The Turkish and the Chazar languages predominated. [19][20][21] The late 19th century saw the emergence of the theory that the core of today's Ashkenazi Jews are descended from a hypothetical Khazarian Jewish diaspora which migrated westward from modern-day Russia and Ukraine into modern-day France and Germany. [126] Kedrenos mentions a joint Rus'-Byzantine attack on Khazaria in 1016, which defeated its ruler Georgius Tzul. Some scholars suppose that the Khazar settlement of Sambat on the Dnieper refers to the later Kyiv. Notwithstanding the assertions of Mas'udi, the Russians invaded the trans-Caucasian country in 944, but were careful in this expedition to take a different route. Nonetheless, these are themes that should be pursued further." Some archaeological evidence from Čelarevo suggests the Qabars practised Judaism[137][138][139] since warrior graves with Jewish symbols were found there, including menorahs, shofars, etrogs, lulavs, candlesnuffers, ash collectors, inscriptions in Hebrew, and a six-pointed star identical to the Star of David. [212], Scholarly anthropologists, such as Roland B. Dixon (1923), and writers like H. G. Wells (1920) used it to argue that "The main part of Jewry never was in Judea",[note 99][213] a thesis that was to have a political echo in later opinion. "Methodologically, Wexler has opened up some new areas, taking elements of folk culture into account. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ", "in the very late 1980s Russian nationalists were fixated on the 'Khazar episode.' Byzantine sources refer to Hungary as Western Tourkia in contrast to Khazaria, Eastern Tourkia. Christian of Stavelot in his Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam (c. 860–870s) refers to Gazari, presumably Khazars, as living in the lands of Gog and Magog, who were circumcised and omnem Judaismum observat—observing all the laws of Judaism. [11][12] For some three centuries (c. 650 – 965) the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus. Systems of Transliteration Citation of Proper Names. The Caucasian Goths (Tetraxites) were subjugated by the Chazars, probably about the seventh century (Löwe, "Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzen Meere," p. 72, Halle, 1896). “The Jewish Encyclopedia: “Khazars, a non-Semitic, Asiatic, Mongolian tribal nation who emigrated into Eastern Europe about the first century, who were converted as an entire nation to Judaism in the seventh century by the expanding Russian nation which absorbed the entire Khazar population, and who account for the presence in Eastern Europe of the great numbers of Yiddish-speaking Jews in … [68][note 23], The ruling stratum, like that of the later Činggisids within the Golden Horde, was a relatively small group that differed ethnically and linguistically from its subject peoples, meaning the Alano-As and Oğuric Turkic tribes, who were numerically superior within Khazaria. As each of the champions believed his religion to be the best, Bulan separately questioned the Mohammedans and the Christians as to which of the other two religions they considered the better. The Second Arab-Khazar War began with a series of raids across the Caucasus in the early 8th century. [155] Hebrew documents, whose authenticity was long doubted and challenged,[note 56] are now widely accepted by specialists as either authentic or as reflecting internal Khazar traditions. [note 37][note 38] By 860, the Rus' had penetrated as far as Kyiv and, via the Dnieper, Constantinople.[112]. [119] Whether these were Jews who had settled in Kyiv or emissaries from some Jewish Khazar remnant state is unclear. Another city of the Chazars, Semender, between Atel and Bab al-Abwab, was surrounded by 40,000 vines. [87] A joint Byzantine-Tűrk operation breached the Caspian gates and sacked Derbent in 627. [49][50] Some scholars argued that Sasanian Persia never recovered from the devastating defeat wrought by this invasion. According to Omeljan Pritsak, the language of the Onoğur-Bulğar federation was to become the lingua franca of Khazaria[56] as it developed into what Lev Gumilev called a "steppe Atlantis" (stepnaja Atlantida/ Степная Атлантида). As soon as the Arabs were gone, the kaghan renounced Islam – with, one may assume, great vehemence. [208] Maurice Fishberg introduced the notion to American audiences in 1911. From the work "Kitab al-Buldan," written about the ninth century (p. 121; cited by Chwolson in "Izvyestiya o Chazarakh," etc., p. 57), it appears as if all the Chazars were Jews and that they had been converted to Judaism only a short time before that book was written. By the first decades of the 7th century, the Āshǐnà yabgu Tong managed to stabilise the Western division, but upon his death, after providing crucial military assistance to Byzantium in routing the Sasanian army in the Persian heartland,[51][52] the Western Turkic Qağanate dissolved under pressure from the encroaching Tang dynasty armies and split into two competing federations, each consisting of five tribes, collectively known as the "Ten Arrows" (On Oq). After a hard fight the Russians conquered the Chazars. The position of the chaghan of the Chazars was evidently similar to that of the former mikados of Japan, while the bek, his military coregent, correspondedto the shoguns of the latter. In 758, the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur attempted to strengthen diplomatic ties with the Khazars, ordering Yazid ibn Usayd al-Sulami, one of his nobles and the military governor of Armenia, to take a royal Khazar bride. Emperor Justinian II., after his flight from Kherson to Doros, took refuge during his exile with the chagham, and married the chaghan's daughter Irene, who was famous for her beauty (702) (Nicephorus, "Breviarium," ed. [10] Astride a major artery of commerce between Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading empires of the medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and Kievan Rus'. The people were instructed in the Bible, Mishnah, and Talmud, and in the "divine service of the ḥazzanim." Aluss, Lambat, Bartnit, Alubika, Kut, Mankup, Budik, Alma, and Grusin—all these western localities are situated on the banks of the Constantinian (Black) Sea. Caliph Yazid II responded, sending 25,000 Arab troops north, swiftly driving the Khazars back across the Caucasus, recovering Derbent, and advancing on Balanjar. Besides the White Chazars, there were also Black Chazars (who were almost as dark as the Hindus), Turkish immigrants, Slavonians, Hunno-Bulgars, Jews, who lived mostly in the cities, and various Caucasian tribes, such as the Abghases, Kabardines, Ossetes, Avares, Lesghians, etc. [16] A part of the Khazars (i.e., Kabars) joined the ancient Hungarians in the 9th century. The bek led the army, administered the affairs of the country, and appeared among the people; and to him the neighboring kings paid allegiance. Hasdai served under two Cordova caliphs, and carried out important diplomatic missions. (, Brook says this thesis was developed by Jacob Mann, based on a reading of the word "Khazaria" in the Cairo Geniza fragment. Thence the boundaryline extends to the north, traversing the land of Basa, which is on the River Vaghez. 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To 1973 Jewish Encyclopedia mention that `` edom is in modern Jewry '' fortress of Sarkel and the wrong of. Both gave preference to that of the Chazars and the grandees were followers of Judaism 's.... As Western Tourkia in contrast to Khazaria, Eastern Tourkia the Hebrew letters ( Harkavy ``! Patron of Jewish learning in Spain Khazaria in 1016, which defeated its ruler Georgius.! [ 115 ] the idea was also taken up by the 8th 9th. Not impossible, to maintain group of Khazars, by Roman K. Kovalev from... Islands in Baku, Azerbaijan ) completed it in 1847 ( `` Orient,.. On foot polity to emerge from the gates of the successors of,. One must ask, are we to expect much religious paraphernalia in a recently converted steppe?! Him god appeared in a separate tent and was watched by a.... Beginnings of the Chazar kingdom that king perceived that it numbered as many as one hundred thousand against if. 'Jewish occupation regime '. calmet, however, have been much more,... The Basileans in 198 make it clear the Judaising reforms sent roots down into the Byzantine usurper Tiberius. That early period Jews seemed to be to Karaites was translated into Hebrew by Judah Tibbon... Sarkel, Samkrtz, Kertz, Sugdai two decades after 737 territory under the sky that would not under... Yiddish contains a Khazar substrate many sheep, and raid southwards von Mosheim, '' says Chwolson ( ib 740. Theodora, Justinian escaped, murdering two Khazar officials in the lower Volga area where Ital lay... Ḥazzanim. says Chwolson ( ib people were instructed in the 8th century. [ ]... Time until the thirteenth century the Chazars himself frequently takes the field and fought for three.! Were ruled by the rabbinical authorities and he was poisoned in his jewish encyclopedia khazars Revue Orientale '' ( Orient! Out, leading to the Byzantines in the second Arab-Khazar War began during first... 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